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Probing TM stiffness with an AFM cantilever

In this image an AFM cantilever is brought into contact with the apical surface of the TM. The TM itself is mounted in a microchamber that rests on a piezoelectric crystal. Vibrations of the crystal push the TM against the cantilever. Cantilever deflections are measured using a laser-Doppler vibrometer. This technique enables measurements of TM impedance in the transverse direction at frequencies up to 10 kHz.